Quiz for Lessons 286 – 290 – Parts of the Sentence – Sentence Variety

Having learned about phrases and clauses, let’s now use the following phrases and clauses to give variety to our writing: participial phrases, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, compound sentences or verbs.
First identify which of the above ways is used in the sentence, and then rewrite it using the three other ways identifying each of the methods used.
Example: Having finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = participial phrase
You must rewrite it using an adverb clause, adjective clause, and either a compound sentence or a simple sentence with compound verbs.
I finished my lessons, sat back, and gloried in my effort. = compound verbs
After I had finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = adverb clause
I who had finished my lessons sat back and gloried in my effort. = adjective clause
Instructions: Identify the written sentence and rewrite it the other three ways.
1. The gardener who had sprayed the weeds with poison thought about the vacation planned for July.
2. When they saw the curtain go up, the audience gasped in surprise but started applauding loudly.
3. Having amassed a fortune, the man was looking forward to living an easy life.
4. She hurried down to the bank, withdrew all her savings, and hid them under her mattress.
5. The new recruits lined up rapidly, and the officers gave them their orders for the day.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. adjective clause
Having sprayed the weeds with poison, the gardener thought about the vacation planned for July. = participial phrase
As he sprayed the weeds with poison, the gardener thought about the vacation planned for July. = adverb clause
The gardener sprayed the weeds with poison and thought about the vacation planned for July. = compound verbs
2. adverb clause
Seeing the curtain go up, the audience gasped in surprise but started applauding loudly. = participial phrase
The audience saw the curtain go up, gasped in surprise, and started applauding loudly. = compound verbs
The audience who gasped in surprise and started applauding loudly saw the curtain go up. = adjective clause
3. participial phrase
The man who had amassed a fortune was looking forward to living an easy life. = adjective clause
The man had amassed a fortune and was looking forward to living an easy life. = compound verbs
After he had amassed a fortune, the man was looking forward to living an easy life. = adverb clause
4. compound verbs
Hurrying down to the bank, she withdrew all her savings and hid them under her mattress. = participial phrase
After she had hurried down to the bank and withdrawn all her savings, she hid them under her mattress. = adverb clause
She hurried down to the bank and withdrew all her savings which she hid under her mattress. = adjective clause
5. compound sentence
Having lined up rapidly, the new recruits were given their orders for the day by the officers. = participial phrase
After the new recruits had lined up rapidly, the officers gave them their orders for the day. = adverb clause
The new recruits who lined up rapidly were given their orders for the day by the officers. = adjective clause

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/quiz-for-lessons-286-290-parts-of.html

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How unique is ‘unique’?

Q: When I was in knee pants, I was taught that something “unique” is “one of a kind.” But when I wasn’t looking, the uniqueness of “unique” was apparently lost. Do I have to accept that it’s now merely “unusual”?

A: We were also taught that “unique” means “one of a kind,” and that’s the way we use it. You can use it that way too.

But while you weren’t looking, the lexicographers who put together dictionaries acknowledged what most English speakers already believed: “unique” can mean “unusual” as well as “one of a kind.”

Nevertheless, many usage authorities still insist on the traditional view, so feel free to use “unique” the way you were taught. But don’t criticize the people who use the term loosely. They have the dictionaries on their side.

English speakers borrowed “unique” in the early 1600s from the French, who got it from the Romans.

In Latin, unicus means “one and only,” and that’s how “unique” was used in English for more than two centuries.

At first, “unique” was mainly used by scholars and others aware of its Latin roots. For them, “unique” was an absolute term (like “infinite” or “eternal”), so there were no degrees of uniqueness. Nothing could be very or almost or sort of “unique.”

But as the word became more popular in the 1800s, it began losing its uniqueness in everyday usage.

As we say in Origins of the Specious, our book about language myths and misconceptions, writers who didn’t know or care about the word’s history began using it for the merely “unusual” or “remarkable” or “uncommon.”

The watered-down “unique” was often propped up with intensifiers—modifiers like “thoroughly,” “absolutely,” and “totally.” Before long, we had all kinds of uniqueness, from “rather” to “somewhat” to “very” to “most.”

For more than a century, usage guides have complained about the weakening of “unique” and berated “the illiterate” (Henry Fowler’s term) for emasculating it.

The latest version of Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage, a fourth edition by Jeremy Butterfield, notes that there’s still a “certain amount of hostility” toward the looser usage, and advises readers “to use it with caution.”

However, millions of people have ignored the usage gurus, and dictionaries have joined them. Merriam-Webster’s Unabridged, for example, says:

“Many commentators have objected to the comparison or modification (as by somewhat or very) of unique, asserting that a thing is either unique or not unique. The objections are based chiefly on the assumption that unique has but a single absolute sense—an assumption contradicted by information readily available in a dictionary.”

The Unabridged lists many modern example of “unique” used to mean “unusual, notable,” including a 1956 comment by Arthur Miller at a news conference in London with his wife, Marilyn Monroe. Here’s an expanded version:

When Miller was asked how he saw Monroe, he responded: “Through two eyes. She’s the most unique person I ever met.”

In Origins of the Specious, published eight years ago, we acknowledged that “the horse is out of the barn here,” but we hoped that “it would come back home.”

That was wishful thinking. It’s clear today that “unique” means “unusual” as well as “one of a kind.” Thus does language change.

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/10/unique.html

Lesson 290 – Parts of the Sentence – Sentence Variety

Having learned about phrases and clauses, let’s now use the following phrases and clauses to give variety to our writing: participial phrases, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, compound sentences or verbs.
First identify which of the above ways is used in the sentence, and then rewrite it using the three other ways identifying each of the methods used.
Example: Having finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = participial phrase
You must rewrite it using an adverb clause, adjective clause, and either a compound sentence or a simple sentence with compound verbs.
I finished my lessons, sat back, and gloried in my effort. = compound verbs
After I had finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = adverb clause
I who had finished my lessons sat back and gloried in my effort. = adjective clause
Instructions: Identify the written sentence and rewrite it the other three ways.
1. The camper sighed heavily, strained under the weight of his load, and carried it into camp.
2. Waiting for the signal to enter, the children played happily around the entrance to the park.
3. When she had performed her daily tasks, the old lady lit a fire and warmed herself for the evening.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. compound verbs
Sighing heavily, the camper strained under the weight of his load and carried it into the camp. = participial phrase
While he strained under the weight of his load, the camper sighed heavily and carried it into camp. = adverb clause
The camper who strained under the weight of his load sighed heavily and carried it into camp. = adjective clause
2. participial phrase
The children waited for the signal to enter as they played happily around the entrance to the park. = adverb clause
The children waited for the signal to enter and played happily around the entrance to the park. = compound verbs
The children who played happily around the entrance to the park waited for the signal to enter. = adjective clause
3. adverb clause
Performing her daily tasks, the old lady lit a fire and warmed herself for the evening. = participial phrase
The old lady that had performed her daily tasks lit a fire and warmed herself for the evening. = adjective clause
The old lady performed her daily tasks, and she lit a fire and warmed herself for the evening. = compound sentence

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in eBook and Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-290-parts-of-sentence-sentence.html

Lesson 289 – Parts of the Sentence – Sentence Variety

Having learned about phrases and clauses, let’s now use the following phrases and clauses to give variety to our writing: participial phrases, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, compound sentences or verbs.
First identify which of the above ways is used in the sentence, and then rewrite it using the three other ways identifying each of the methods used.
Example: Having finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = participial phrase
You must rewrite it using an adverb clause, adjective clause, and either a compound sentence or a simple sentence with compound verbs.
I finished my lessons, sat back, and gloried in my effort. = compound verbs
After I had finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = adverb clause
I who had finished my lessons sat back and gloried in my effort. = adjective clause
Instructions: Identify the written sentence and rewrite it the other three ways.
1. Standing nervously in the wings of the theater, Jeanne practiced her lines quietly and waited to go on stage.
2. The detective searched carefully through the old desk as he recounted in his mind the importance of the will.
3. The small black dog which looked weak and harmless leaped suddenly at the stranger.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. participial phrase
Jeanne stood nervously in the wings of the theater and practiced her lines quietly while she waited to go on stage. = adverb clause
Jeanne stood nervously in the wings of the theater, practiced her lines quietly, and waited to go on stage. = compound verbs
Jeanne who practiced her lines quietly stood nervously in the wings of the theater and waited to go on stage. = adjective clause
2. adverb clause
The detective searched carefully through the old desk, and he recounted in his mind the importance of the will. = compound sentence
Recounting in his mind the importance of the will, the detective searched carefully through the old desk. = participial phrase
The detective who searched carefully through the old desk recounted in his mind the importance of the will. = adjective clause
3. adjective clause
Looking weak and harmless, the small black dog leaped suddenly at the stranger. = participial phrase
Although he looked weak and harmless, the small black dog leaped suddenly at the stranger. = adverb clause
The small black dog looked weak and harmless but leaped suddenly at the stranger. = compound verbs

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-289-parts-of-sentence-sentence.html

The noisome origins of ‘noisy’

Q: “Noisome” and “noisy” look alike, despite their different meanings. Are they linguistically related?

A: No, “noisome” (smelly or disgusting) and “noisy” (making a lot of noise) aren’t etymologically related, though “noisy” very likely had smelly origins.

“Noisome,” which showed up in the 14th century, was derived from the combination of “noy,” an archaic form of “annoy,” with the suffix “-some”.

“Noisy,” which also appeared in the 1300s, is derived from “noise,” a word that English borrowed from Anglo-Norman in the 12th century.

Although “noisy” isn’t etymologically related to “noisome,” the noun “noise” probably had noisome origins in classical times, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.

The OED says the classical source of “noise” is likely nausea, Latin for sea sickness. That literal sense apparently evolved in the Romance languages to “upset, malaise,” then “disturbance, uproar,” and finally “noise, din.”

The dictionary’s earliest citation for “noisome” is from the Wycliffe Bible of 1382: foolys þoo thyngis þat ben noȝesum to þem shul coueiten” (“fools shall covet those things that be noisome to them”).

The first OED example for “noisy” is from The Country-Wife, a 1675 comedy by the English playwright William Wycherley: “Your noisy pert Rogue of a wit, the greatest Fop, dullest Ass, and worst Company as you shall see.”

Finally, the dictionary’s earliest citation for “noise” is from Ancrene Riwle, an anonymous guide for monastic women that probably dates from sometime before 1200:

“Þe prude beoð his bemeres; draheð wind inward worltlich hereword, and eft wið idel ȝelp puffeð hit utward as þe bemeres doð, makieð noise” (“The proud are his trumpeters; they draw in the wind of worldly praise, and then, with vain boasting, puff it out again, as the trumpeter doth, to maketh noise”). We’ve expanded the OED citation to add context.

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/10/noisome-noisy.html

Lesson 288 – Parts of the Sentence – Sentence Variety

Having learned about phrases and clauses, let’s now use the following phrases and clauses to give variety to our writing: participial phrases, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, compound sentences or verbs.
First identify which of the above ways is used in the sentence, and then rewrite it using the three other ways identifying each of the methods used.
Example: Having finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = participial phrase
You must rewrite it using an adverb clause, adjective clause, and either a compound sentence or a simple sentence with compound verbs.
I finished my lessons, sat back, and gloried in my effort. = compound verbs
After I had finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = adverb clause
I who had finished my lessons sat back and gloried in my effort. = adjective clause
Instructions: Identify the written sentence and rewrite it the other three ways.
1. The engineer knew the train was on time, leaned against the side, and sighed with relief.
2. Hoping to have the seating in place by evening, the committee for the Olympics hurriedly set up bleachers along the main road.
3. Mark took a quick, refreshing swim in the mountain lake before he returned to the cabin for breakfast.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. compound verbs
Knowing the train was on time, the engineer leaned against the side and sighed with relief. = participial phrase
The engineer that knew the train was on time leaned against the side and sighed with relief. = adjective clause
When the engineer leaned against the side and sighed with relief, he knew the train was on time. = adverb clause
2. participial phrase
The committee for the Olympics hoped to have the seating in place by evening and hurriedly set up bleachers along the main road. = compound verb
The committee for the Olympics that hoped to have the seating in place by evening hurriedly set up bleachers along the main road. = adjective clause
Because they hoped to have the seating in place by evening, the committee for the Olympics hurriedly set up bleachers along the main road. = adverb clause
3. adverb clause
Having taken a quick, refreshing swim in the mountain lake, Mark returned to the cabin for breakfast. = participial phrase
Mark who had taken a quick, refreshing swim in the mountain lake returned to the cabin for breakfast. = adjective clause
Mark took a quick, refreshing swim in the mountain lake and returned to the cabin for breakfast. = compound verbs

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-288-parts-of-sentence-sentence.html

Lesson 287 – Parts of the Sentence – Sentence Variety

Having learned about phrases and clauses, let’s now use the following phrases and clauses to give variety to our writing: participial phrases, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, compound sentences or verbs.
First identify which of the above ways is used in the sentence, and then rewrite it using the three other ways identifying each of the methods used.
Example: Having finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = participial phrase
You must rewrite it using an adverb clause, adjective clause, and either a compound sentence or a simple sentence with compound verbs.
I finished my lessons, sat back, and gloried in my effort. = compound verbs
After I had finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = adverb clause
I who had finished my lessons sat back and gloried in my effort. = adjective clause
Instructions: Identify the written sentence and rewrite it the other three ways.
1. At dusk the manager threw the electrical switch, and the amusement park lit up like a star-studded galaxy.
2. As he walked out on the wire and completed his various routines, the acrobat carefully demonstrated his intricate ability.
3. The people who saw the basketball star surged against the restraints and called out compliments and greetings.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. compound sentence
Throwing the electrical switch at dusk, the manager lit up the amusement park like a star-studded galaxy. = participial phrase
At dusk the manager who threw the electrical switch lit up the amusement park like a star-studded galaxy. = adjective clause
After the manager threw the electrical switch, the amusement park lit up like a star-studded galaxy at dusk. = adverb clause
2. participial phrase
When he had demonstrated his intricate ability, the acrobat carefully walked out on the wire and completed his various routines. = adverb clause
The acrobat demonstrated his intricate ability, carefully walked out on the wire, and completed his various routines. = compound verbs
The acrobat who carefully walked out on the wire and completed his various routines demonstrated his intricate ability. = adjective clause
3. adjective clause
Seeing the basketball star, the people surged against the restraints and called out compliments and greetings. = participial phrase
When the people saw the basketball star, they surged against the restraints and called out compliments and greetings. = adverb clause
The people saw the basketball star, and they surged against the restraints and called out compliments and greetings. = compound sentence

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in eBook and Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-287-parts-of-sentence-sentence.html