Lesson 244 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verbs (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
Example: The actors performed there to entertain and to be seen. (performed = verb, actors = subject, the = adjective modifying actors, there = adverb modifying performed, to entertain/to be seen = adv. infinitives modifying performed, and = conjunction)
1. The ricocheting car flew through the wall of the house.
2. Go to the thesaurus to find a better word.
3. This computer program is difficult to understand and follow.
4. Have you tried writing a letter to him?
5. Harold’s chief interests are gambling and spending money.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. flew = verb, car = subject, the = adjective modifying car, ricocheting = participle modifying car, through the wall = prepositional phrase modifying flew, through = preposition, wall = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying wall, of the house = prepositional phrase modifying wall, of = preposition, house = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying house
2. go = verb, (you) = subject, to the thesaurus = prepositional phrase modifying go, to = preposition, thesaurus = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying thesaurus, to find a better word = adverb infinitive phrase modifying go, word = direct object to the verbal to find, a/better = adjectives modifying word
3. is = verb, program = subject, this/computer = adjectives modifying program, difficult = predicate adjective modifying program, to understand/(to) follow = adverb infinitives modifying difficult, and = conjunction
4. have tried = verb, you = subject, writing a letter to him = gerund phrase used as direct object, letter = direct object to the verbal writing, a = adjective modifying letter, to him = prepositional phrase modifying writing, to = preposition, him = object of the preposition
5. are = verb, interests = subject, Harold’s/chief = adjectives modifying interests, gambling/spending money = gerund and a gerund phrase used as predicate nominatives, money = direct object to verbal spending, and = conjunction

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from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-244-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

A last-ditch attempt

Q: Does the expression “last ditch” come from trench warfare during World War I?

A: It does indeed come from the excavated defensive positions used in warfare, but the fighting that inspired the phrase “last ditch” took place hundreds of years before World War I.

The usage can be traced back to William of Orange’s vow to fight to the death in the 17th century rather than see the Dutch Republic conquered by invading French and British forces.

William, the Dutch stadtholder, or steward, was the son of the previous stadtholder and Princess Mary, daughter of King Charles I of Britain. He later became King William III of Britain.

On July 5, 1672, an envoy from Charles II, then the ruling British monarch, met with William in southern Holland and offered to make him sovereign prince of Holland if he surrendered to the British and French.

If he refused, the envoy said, William would witness the death of the Dutch Republic.

The Oxford English Dictionary cites two versions of  William’s reply. The first is in Jure Divino, a 1706 poem by Daniel Defoe, but we prefer this one, written sometime before 1715, from Bishop Burnet’s History of His Own Time:

“There was a sure way never to see it lost, and that was to die in the last ditch.” (Burnet was a philosopher, historian, and Anglican bishop of Salisbury.)

The OED defines the noun phrase “last ditch” as “the innermost or only remaining defensive entrenchment, the last line of defence; often fig. and in figurative contexts.”

The dictionary defines the expression “to die in the last ditch” as “to die still fighting to defend something, to resist to the last.”

When the adjective “last-ditch” showed up in the late 19th century, according to the Oxford, it described “fighting, resistance, or opposition to the very last; maintained to the end.”

The first OED citation for the adjective is from Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army (1888):

“It was said … the French intended to die to the last man before giving up that city. But this proved all fudge, as is usual with these ‘last ditch’ promises.”

In the 20th century, the adjective came to describe something done “at the last minute in an attempt to avert disaster; resulting from desperation.”

The earliest OED example for this new sense is from Death in the Desert: The Fifty Years’ War for the Great Southwest (1935), by Paul I. Wellman:

“It was a last-ditch law, dictated by the fear which death from the north had engendered in every Mexican heart.”

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/08/last-ditch.html

Lesson 243 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verbs (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
Example: The actors performed there to entertain and to be seen. (performed = verb, actors = subject, the = adjective modifying actors, there = adverb modifying performed, to entertain/to be seen = adv. infinitives modifying performed, and = conjunction)
1. Blaming others is a coward’s way to feel better.
2. We do not plan to change the landscape.
3. Keeping his promise, Jim was there to help.
4. I am too old to learn to ski.
5. One way to lose weight is to exercise.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. is = verb, blaming others = gerund phrase used as subject, others = direct object to verbal blaming, way = predicate nominative, a/coward’s = adjectives modifying way, to feel better = adjective infinitive phrase modifying way, better = predicate adjective modifying verbal to feel
2. do plan = verb, we = subject, not = adverb modifying do plan, to change the landscape = noun infinitive phrase used as a direct object, landscape = direct object to the verbal to change, the = adjective modifying landscape
3. was = verb, Jim = subject, keeping his promise = participial phrase modifying Jim, promise = direct object to the verbal keeping, his = adjective modifying promise, there = adverb modifying was, to help = adverb infinitive modifying was
4. am = verb, I = subject, old = predicate adjective modifying am, too = adverb modifying old, to learn to ski = adverb infinitive phrase modifying old, to ski = noun infinitive used as the direct object of the verbal to learn
5. is = verb, way = subject, one = adjective modifying way, to lose weight = adjective infinite phrase modifying way, weight = direct object to the verbal to lose, to exercise = noun infinitive used as the predicate nominative

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-243-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

Lesson 242 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verbs (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
Example: The actors performed there to entertain and to be seen. (performed = verb, actors = subject, the = adjective modifying actors, there = adverb modifying performed, to entertain/to be seen = adv. infinitives modifying performed, and = conjunction)
1. Do you have a car to rent?
2. Flags hung too high are hard to take down.
3. Your moaning and groaning will not make things easier.
4. You know my problem, hating too many foods.
5. To decorate for the wedding will cost a great deal.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. do have = verb, you = subject, car = direct object, a = adjective modifying car, to rent = adverb infinitive modifying do have
2. are = verb, flags = subject, hung too high = participial phrase modifying flags, high = adverb modifying hung, too = adverb modifying high, hard = predicate adjective modifying flags, to take down = adverb infinitive phrase modifying hard, down = adverb modifying to take
3. will make = verb, moaning/groaning = gerunds used as subjects, your = adjective modifying moaning/groaning, not = adverb modifying will make, things = direct object, easier = object compliment modifying things
4. know = verb. you = subject, problem = direct object, my = adjective modifying problem, hating too many foods = gerund phrase used as appositive, foods = direct object, many = adjective modifying foods, too = adverb modifying many
5. will cost = verb, to decorate for the wedding = noun infinitive phrase used as a subject, for the wedding = prepositional phrase modifying to decorate, for = preposition, wedding = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying wedding, deal = direct object, a/great = adjectives modifying deal

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-242-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

Lesson 241 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verbs (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
Example: The actors performed there to entertain and to be seen. (performed = verb, actors = subject, the = adjective modifying actors, there = adverb modifying performed, to entertain/to be seen = adv. infinitives modifying performed, and = conjunction)
1. I finally bought me a hearing aid to hear better.
2. Sometimes I just need to try again.
3. Having decided definitely, he stepped onto the train to leave home.
4. The person winning the lottery will have a different life.
5. You can only reach our place by crossing the river.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. bought = verb, I = subject, finally = adverb modifying bought, me = indirect object, hearing aid = direct object, a = adjective modifying hearing aid, to hear better = adverb infinitive phrase modifying bought, better = adverb modifying to hear
2. need = verb, I = subject, sometimes/just = adverbs modifying need, to try again = noun infinitive phrase used as the direct object, again = adverb modifying to try
3. stepped = verb, he = subject, having decided definitely = participial phrase modifying he, definitely = adverb modifying having decided, onto the train = prepositional phase modifying stepped, onto = preposition, train = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying train, to leave home = adverb infinitive phrase modifying stepped, home = adverb modifying to leave
4. will have = verb, person = subject, the = adjective modifying person, winning the lottery = participial phrase modifying person, lottery = direct object to the verbal winning, the = adjective modifying lottery, life = direct object, a/different = adjectives modifying life
5. can reach = verb, you = subject, only = adverb modifying can reach, place = direct object, our = adjective modifying place, by crossing the river = prepositional phrase modifying can reach, by = preposition, crossing the river = gerund phrase used as the object of the preposition, river = direct object to the verbal crossing, the = adjective modifying river

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-241-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

Locked and loaded

Q: I’ve been thinking about “locked and loaded” since President Trump used it last week to warn North Korea. Why is it “locked and loaded” when the logic of it is “loaded and locked”? Where did this begin?

A: We think “locked and loaded” makes sense, especially when used literally on the firing range. But like many expressions, it’s strayed quite a bit when used figuratively.

We’ve seen a couple of early examples, one from the late 1700s and the other from the early 1800s, of “locked and loaded” used to describe firearms, but it may have been used in different ways.

In the first example, it apparently refers to a flintlock musket, loaded with ball and powder, and with its firing mechanism at half-cock, or locked.

Why was “locked” mentioned before “loaded”? Probably because the cock, or hammer, was locked first to prevent an accidental discharge while the weapon was being loaded from the muzzle, or open end, of the barrel.

To fire a flintlock weapon, the hammer must be at full cock when the trigger is pulled. The cock holds a piece of flint that strikes the steel frizzen, creating a spark that falls into the pan, igniting powder and causing the weapon to fire, as in this illustration.

The earliest written example we’ve seen for “locked and loaded” is from a document in the archives of the New Brunswick Historical Society. It describes a dispute on Aug. 6 and 7, 1793, over the possession of a house and lot in what was then the British colony of Nova Scotia.

When a disputant “brought in two musquets and justice Hubbard asked him if the guns were well locked and loaded,” according to the document, he replied, “One of them is.” We assume “well locked” here meant “safely locked.”

But it’s unclear in the second example whether “locked and loaded” is being used for a half-cocked or fully cocked pistol. In Lord Roldan, an 1836 novel by the Scottish writer Allan Cunningham, Davie Gellock, a young man posing as a commissioned officer, is asked to show his commission:

“Davie, snatching a pistol from his pocket, and cocking it at the same moment; ‘There is my commission, steel mounted, inlaid with gold, locked and loaded.’ ”

The next example we’ve seen, from a July 20, 1940, US War Department training manual for the M1 rifle, makes clear that the safety should be set, or locked, before the M1 is loaded.

“The instructor, after announcing the range and the position to be used, commands: 1. With dummy cartridges, lock and load; 2. Ready on the right; 3. Ready on the left; 4. Ready on the firing line; 5. Cease firing; 6. Unload. At the first command the rifles are locked and loaded. At the fourth command the safety on all rifles is set in the forward position. When the target is exposed, pupils take position rapidly and simulate firing 16 rounds, reloading from the belt.” (The M1 safety is off when set in the forward position, and on when pulled back.)

The Oxford English Dictionary defines “to lock and load” as “to prepare a firearm for firing by pulling back and ‘locking’ the bolt and loading the ammunition (frequently in imperative, as an order).”

The dictionary’s earliest example, from the Nov. 19, 1940, issue of the New York Times, uses the expression in the imperative: “Lieut. Col. Joseph T. Hart, range officer, boomed through his microphone, ‘Lock and Load.’ ”

The OED says the expression has also been used figuratively as “to ready oneself for action or confrontation.” The first figurative example is from the September 1990 issue of Snow Boarder: “He was locked and loaded in the starting gate, completely focused and obviously amped for his final run.”

Although “locked and Loaded” is the usual expression now, we’ve also found quite a few older examples for “loaded and locked,” as in this one from a Feb. 18, 1912, article in the Dallas Morning News about a rifle shoot: “Competitor stands at the order of trail, piece loaded and locked.”

And here’s one from the Sept. 15, 1911, article in the Philadelphia Inquirer about a rifle match in Essington, PA: “The men were to take their rifles and carry them at the position of trail arms, loaded and locked.”

But as we said at the beginning, we think the expression “locked and loaded” makes sense, especially on the firing line.

We’ll end with a definition of the term from Soldier Talk, Frank A. Hailey’s 1982 book about military language:

Lock and load. A firing range command for soldiers to place safety levers of weapons in the ‘save’ position and load ammunition. Soldiers frequently used the expression when in a group and a brawl or confrontation was imminent.”

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