The adjective clause is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause. The introductory word will always rename the word that it follows and modifies except when used with a preposition which will come between the introductory word and the word it renames. Examples: The student whose hand was up gave the wrong answer. Whose hand was up is the adjective clause with whose, the relative pronoun, renaming and modifying student. Jane is a person in whom I can place my confidence. Whom I can place my confidence is the adjective clause with whom, the relative pronoun, with the preposition inbetween it and person the word that whom renames and modifies.
An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. It usually modifies the verb.
Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionsincluding after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.
Example: They arrived before the game had ended. (“before the game had ended” is the adverb clause modifying the verb arrived telling when.)
A noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used the same ways as a noun or pronoun. It can be a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition. Some of the words that introduce noun clauses are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever. Notice that some of these words also introduce adjective and adverb clauses. (To check a noun clause substitute the pronoun it or the proper form of the pronouns heor she for the noun clause.) Examples: I know who said that. (I know it.) Whoever said it is wrong. (He is wrong.) Sometimes a noun clause is used without the introductory word. Example: I know that he is here. (I know he is here.)
Instructions: Find the adjective, adverb or noun clauses in these sentences. If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause, tell if it is used as the subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition.
1. Then I learned the truth, that I had been cheated.
2. The trick that he played on me was not funny.
3. He hopes that he can learn to ski.
4. It is obvious that you want no help.
5. The truth is that freedom is not free.
–For answers scroll down.
1. that I had been cheated = noun clause used as the appositive
2. that he played on me = adjective clause modifying the subject trick
3. that he can learn to ski = noun clause used as the direct object
4. that you want no help = adverb clause modifying the predicate adjective obvious
5. that freedom is not free = noun clause used as the predicate nominative
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