Quiz for Lessons 416 – 420 – Mechanics – Punctuation – Hyphens

Instructions: Supply hyphens where they are needed in these sentences.
1. I need to get rid of my self denial if I am to recover.
2. Is that glass two thirds full?
3. I think that age forty five is rather late to start a family.
4. Our ex captain came to visit our football team.
5. Much anti United States sentiment seems to exist all over the world.
6. Long discussions continued on the mid Atlantic items.
7. His fault was that he was a self made man who loved his creator.
8. I hope to get in the ninety fifth percentile.
9. The one third minority objected to the ruling.
10. Many are worried about our vice president’s health.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. I need to get rid of my self-denial if I am to recover.
2. Is that glass two-thirds full?
3. I think that age forty-five is rather late to start a family.
4. Our ex-captain came to visit our football team.
5. Much anti-United States sentiment seems to exist all over the world.
6. Long discussions continued on the mid-Atlantic items.
7. His fault was that he was a self-made man who loved his creator.
8. I hope to get in the ninety-fifth percentile.
9. The one-third minority objected to the ruling.
10. Many are worried about our vice-president’s health.

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2018/05/quiz-for-lessons-416-420-mechanics.html

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The truth about trees

Q: The words “tree” and “true,” according to a TED video, have a common ancestor. From what I gather, this was back in prehistoric times, before there was writing. So how do we know the first thing about an ancient language if there’s no written record of it?

A: Historical linguists believe that “tree” and “true” have a common prehistoric ancestor, a belief that’s based on studies of a reconstructed, hypothetical ancient language known as Proto Indo-European (PIE for short), not on any written evidence.

By studying members of the present Indo-European family, linguists have extrapolated back to the presumed prehistoric language. The Indo-European family comprises many European and Asian languages, including English.

In reconstructing the PIE vocabulary, for example, linguists have used the comparative method, a technique for finding similar words in various Indo-European languages.

As the linguist and phonologist Calvert Watkins explains, similar words, or cognates, in present Indo-European languages “provide evidence for the shape of the prehistoric Indo-European word.”

Watkins, author of The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, says “tree” and “true” are ultimately derived from deru-, a Proto Indo-European root meaning to “be firm, solid, steadfast.”

This PIE root gave prehistoric Germanic the terms trewam (“tree”) and treuwithō (“truth”), and Old English the words trēow (“tree”) and trēowe (“true”), Watkins writes. (Old English spellings vary considerably.)

The earliest example of “tree” in the Oxford English Dictionary (with the plural treo) is from the Vespasian Psalter, an illuminated manuscript dated around 825:

“Muntas and alle hyllas, treo westemberu and alle cederbeamas” (“Mountains and all hills, fruit trees and all cedars”). We’ve expanded the citation, from Psalm 148.

And in Pastoral Care, King Alfred’s late ninth-century translation of a sixth-century work by Pope Gregory, an unbeliever is compared to a barren tree:

“Ælc triow man sceal ceorfan, þe gode wæstmas ne birð, & weorpan on fyr, & forbærnan” (“Every tree that does not bear good fruit shall be cut down and cast into the fire and burnt”). We’ve expanded the OED citation, which refers to Matthew 7:19. The dictionary describes triow here as a variant reading of treow.

When “true” showed up in Old English, it meant loyal, faithful, or trustworthy. Here’s an example from Beowulf, an epic poem that may have been written as early as 725:

“Þa gyt wæs hiera sib ætgædere, æghwylc oðrum trywe” (“The two were at peace together, true to each other”). Here trywe is a variant spelling of trēow.

As Old English gave way to Middle English in the 12th century, the word “true” came to mean accurate or factual, as in this example from Layamon’s Brut, an early Middle English poem written sometime before 1200:

“Belin ihærde sugge þurh summe sæg treowe of his broðer wifðinge” (“Belin heard it said through some true report of his brother’s marriage”). The passage refers to Belin and Brennes, brothers who vie in Anglo-Saxon legend to rule Britain.

And this example is from Wohunge Ure Lauerd (“The Wooing of Our Lord”), a Middle English homily written sometime before 1250. The author, presumably a woman, tells Jesus of her passionate love for him:

“A swete ihesu þu oppnes me þin herte for to cnawe witerliche and in to reden trewe luue lettres” (“Ah, sweet Jesus, you open your heart to me, so that I may know it inwardly, and read inside it true love letters”).

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2018/05/tree-true.html

Lesson 420 – Mechanics – Punctuation – Hyphens

Use a hyphen with compounds beginning with the prefix self. Example: self-centered
Instructions: Supply hyphens where they are needed in these sentences.
1. That man is very self reliant in all he does.
2. To succeed you must become less self indulgent.
3. To lose weight I must be self disciplined in my eating habits.
4. He started his college career with great self determination.
5. He refused to answer the questions because of self incrimination.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. That man is very self-reliant in all he does.
2. To succeed you must become less self-indulgent.
3. To lose weight I must be self-disciplined in my eating habits.
4. He started his college career with great self-determination.
5. He refused to answer the questions because of self-incrimination.

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in eBook and Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2018/05/lesson-420-mechanics-punctuation-hyphens.html

Lesson 419 – Mechanics – Punctuation – Hyphens

Use a hyphen with ex, elect, and vice when they are used to form part of a title. Example: president-elect
Instructions: Supply hyphens where they are needed in these sentences.
1. George W. Bush is now our President elect.
2. Some people wonder what will happen to our ex President.
3. Carter Jones was named vice consul to India.
4. Our vice president will now speak to us.
5. Our ex secretary will become our vice chairman next year.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. George W. Bush is now our President-elect.
2. Some people wonder what will happen to our ex-President.
3. Carter Jones was named vice-consul to India.
4. Our vice-president will now speak to us.
5. Our ex-secretary will become our vice-chairman next year.

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2018/05/lesson-419-mechanics-punctuation-hyphens.html

What about ‘whatnot’?

Q: For as long as I can remember, I’ve heard the phrase “what not” used in the sense of “et cetera.” I’m curious about the etymology. I searched your archives but can’t find that you’ve written about it. Have you?

A: No, we haven’t written about it yet, so let’s remedy that now.

You may be surprised to hear this, but the term “whatnot” (it’s usually one word today) has been around for hundreds of years, dating back to the mid-1500s.

When the usage first appeared, as two words, it could mean “anything,” “everything,” “anything and everything,” or “all sorts of things,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary.

The earliest OED example is from The Comedye of Acolastus, John Palsgrave’s 1540 translation of a Latin carnival play written in 1529 by the Dutch writer Gulielmus Gnapheus:

“Excesse of fleshely pleasures … hath taken awaye all thynges … my goodes or substance, my name .i. my good name and fame, my frendes, my glory .i. my renoume or estimation, what not? .i. what thyng is it that she hath not taken from me?” (Palsgrave uses the abbreviation “.i.” for the Latin id est, or “that is,” usually rendered as  “i.e.”)

Today, according to the dictionary, “whatnot” is used as a “final item of an enumeration” and means “anything else, various things besides; ‘whatever you like to call it.’ ”

The first Oxford example for the term used as a final item in a series is from a Dec. 21, 1663, entry in the diary of Samuel Pepys: “The strange variety of people … bakers, brewers, butchers, draymen, and what not.”

Since the early 1800s, the OED says, the term has also been used for an “article of furniture consisting of an open stand with shelves one above another, for keeping or displaying various objects, as ornaments, curiosities, books, papers, etc.”

The dictionary’s first example of the term used for an open stand for bric-a-brac is from a Dec. 21, 1808, letter by Lady Sarah Spencer (later Baroness Lyttelton) to her brother, Bob, a 16-year-old midshipman in the Royal Navy and later Capt. Sir Robert Cavendish Spencer. Note her italics for “what-nots,” suggesting the usage was relatively new:

“There is a new and very handsome thick carpet put down in the old library; of course therefore we breakfasted in the drawing-room, while all the old chairs, tables, what-nots, and sofas were torn up by the roots to make room for the new-comer.” (We’ve expanded the OED citation.)

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Lesson 418 – Mechanics – Punctuation – Hyphens

Use a hyphen in a compound adjective in which the last word is capitalized. Example: un-Christian
Instructions: Supply hyphens where they are needed in these sentences.
1. He was accused of unAmerican activities.
2. He would not move to New York City because he was a totally antiNew York fan.
3. Some businesses have an unEuropean attitude.
4. His unIrish sentiments caused many problems for the family.
5. Road rage certainly should be considered unChristian.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. He was accused of un-American activities.
2. He would not move to New York City because he was a totally anti-New York fan.
3. Some businesses have an un-European attitude.
4. His un-Irish sentiments caused many problems for the family.
5. Road rage certainly should be considered un-Christian.

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2018/05/lesson-418-mechanics-punctuation-hyphens.html

Lesson 417 – Mechanics – Punctuation – Hyphens

Use a hyphen in a compound adjective that is a fraction. Example: You need a two-thirds majority for passage.
Instructions: Supply hyphens where they are needed in these sentences.
1. For that recipe you need one fourth cup of cream.
2. Cut off three eighths of an inch from that board.
3. That bug is only seven sixteenths of an inch long.
4. A three fifths majority is really 60 percent.
5. The bylaws require a three fourths majority to change them.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. For that recipe you need one-fourth cup of cream.
2. Cut off three-eighths of an inch from that board.
3. That bug is only seven-sixteenths of an inch long.
4. A three-fifths majority is really 60 percent.
5. The bylaws require a three-fourths majority to change them.

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in eBook and Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2018/05/lesson-417-mechanics-punctuation-hyphens.html