Quiz for Lessons 236 – 240 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals

Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.
1. Are you too busy to help us?
2. The crying child rushed to his mother.
3. He jumped from the cliff without looking down.
4. Walking is good for everyone.
5. Jim loves to play basketball.
6. Correction by others is hard to take.
7. Fearing their enemies, many small animals are nocturnal.
8. Law and Order is the program to watch tonight.
9. I don’t know whether to go or to stay.
10. Our next job, to finish the painting, should be easy.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. to help us is an adverb infinitive modifying the predicate adjective busy
2. crying is a participle modifying the subject child.
3. looking down is a gerund phrase used as the object of the preposition without
4. walking is a gerund used as the subject
5. to play basketball is a noun infinitive phrase used as the direct object
6. to take is an adverb infinitive modifying the predicate adjective hard
7. fearing their enemies is a participial phrase modifying the subject animals
8. to watch tonight is an adjective infinitive phrase modifying the predicate nominative program
9. to go/to stay are noun infinitives used as direct objects
10. to finish the painting is a noun infinitive used as an appositive/ painting is a gerund used as the direct object to the verbal to finish

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from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/quiz-for-lessons-236-240-parts-of.html

An uncommon courtesy

Q: “Courtesy” as a verb? This is from a local Fox News employee in Austin, TX: “We would courtesy you.”

A: It’s not just Fox News in Austin. We’ve found many examples of the identical wording from broadcasters around the country in offering people credit for using their online videos.

Here’s a request by an assignment editor at KTLA News in Los Angeles for consent to use a rock-climbing video on Facebook:

“I am writing to request permission to use your video ‘The Dawn Wall Push Day 08’ in our newscast. we would courtesy you.”

And here’s a request from NY1 News in New York City on a website about Yaks: “We are seeking permission to use this video during a news piece on Yak Meat. We would courtesy you of course.”

This example on Twitter is from a sports producer at a Fox station in Oakland, CA: “Can we use your Mark Davis sound on air and social media. We would courtesy you.”

Finally, the ESPN assignment desk added this comment to a YouTube video of someone doing a backflip over water on a modified snowmobile:

“ESPN would like permission to use this video on our TV and web platforms. We would courtesy you if approved.”

These media types have turned the phrase “by courtesy of” (that is, “provided as a favor by”) into a verb meaning “to give credit for”—a usage that hasn’t made it into standard dictionaries.

Interestingly, the word “courtesy” has occasionally been used over the centuries as a verb meaning to bow before a superior. (The word in this sense was later shortened to “curtsy.”)

Here’s an example from The History of Sir Charles Grandison, a 1753 novel by Samuel Richardson: “Beauchamp, in a graceful manner, bowed on her hand: She courtesied to him with an air of dignity and esteem.”

In fact, we’ve found several recent examples, including a reader comment last month on the website of the Sunday Express that criticized Theresa May, the British Prime Minister, for curtsying before Queen Elizabeth II:

May courtesied? Disgraceful. No human is superior to another, certainly not by an accident of birth.”

As it turns out, “courtesy” (and “curtsy”) is related to “courtesan,” “cohort,” and “court,” according to John Ayto’s Dictionary of Word Origins. All are ultimately derived from cohors, classical Latin for an enclosed yard.

“By extension it came to stand for those assembled in such a yard—a crowd of attendants or company of soldiers; hence the meaning of cohort familiar today,” Ayto writes.

He traces the judicial sense of “court” to “an early association of Old French cort [a judicial tribunal] with Latin curia [a legal tribunal or sovereign’s assembly].”

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/08/courtesy.html

Lesson 240 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals

A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles and infinitives.
A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Eating is fun.
A participle is used as an adjective and ends in various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.
Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.
1. You are difficult to understand.
2. Jack hopes to join the Army next month.
3. The Senate favors increasing taxes.
4. The broken lamp lay on the floor.
5. I saw him trying to open the trunk.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. to understand is an adverb infinitive modifying the predicate adjective difficult
2. to join the Army next month is a noun infinitive phrase used as the direct object
3. increasing taxes is a gerund phrase used as the direct object
4. broken is a participle modifying the subject lamp
5. trying to open the trunk is a participial phrase modifying the direct object him/to open the trunk is a noun infinitive phrase used as the direct object to the verbal trying

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-240-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

Lesson 239 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals

A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles and infinitives.
A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Eating is fun.
A participle is used as an adjective and ends in various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.
Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.
1. The glancing blow did little damage.
2. Go to the dictionary to look for the answer.
3. This computer game is easy to play and to understand.
4. Have you tried writing it down daily?
5. His chief interests are skiing and racing.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. glancing is a participle modifying the subject blow
2. to look for the answer is an adverb infinitive phrase modifying the verb go
3. to play/to understand are adverb infinitives modifying the predicate adjective easy
4. writing it down daily is a gerund phrase used as the direct object
5. skiing/racing are gerunds used as predicate nominatives

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-239-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

Either or neither of three?

Q: I was under the impression that “either”/”neither” constructions are used with only two alternatives. But I often see them with three or more. Am I too restrictive?

A: Yes, you’re too restrictive. “Either” and “neither” usually refer to only two things, but not always.

When “either” showed up in Old English as ǽghwæðer (also contracted as ǽgðer), it meant “each of two.” And when “neither” showed up in Old English as nauðer (næþer in early Middle English), it meant “none of two.”

Yes, there’s clearly an etymological two-ness about the terms. And as we’ve said, that’s the way “either” and “neither” are generally used.

However, writers haven’t been confined by etymology when the terms are used to introduce a series, as in these examples from Shakespeare:

“They say there is divinity in odd numbers, either in nativity, chance, or death” (from The Merry Wives of Windsor, circa 1597).

“You know neither me, yourselves nor any thing” (from Coriolanus, c. 1605-08).

If Shakespeare’s not good enough for you, how about Samuel Johnson? His biographer, James Boswell, quotes the great lexicographer as saying “neither tea, nor coffee, nor lemonade, nor anything whatever.”

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language notes that the duality of “either” and “neither” is weakened when they’re used as conjunctions to introduce a series.

The authors, Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, say the two terms can be used “in multiple as well as the more common binary coordination.”

Huddleston and Pullum give these examples: “either Kim, Pat, or Alex” and “neither kind, handsome, nor rich.”

Standard dictionaries generally accept the use of “either” or “neither” to introduce a series of more than two items.

Merriam-Webster Unabridged, for example, says “either” can be used “before two or more coordinate words, phrases, or clauses joined usually by or.” It defines “neither” as “not one of two or more.”

However, dictionaries say “either” and “neither” refer to only two alternatives when used as an adjective (“I’ll take either flavor, vanilla or chocolate”) or a pronoun (“Neither [of them] for me”).

We gave examples above of Shakespeare’s use of “either” and “neither” with more than two items. We’ll end with an example from Hamlet (c. 1600), in which he overdoes the usage to emphasize the pedantry of Polonius:

“The best actors in the world, either for tragedy, comedy, history, pastoral, pastoral-comical, historical-pastoral, tragical-historical, tragical-comical-historical-pastoral, scene individable, or poem unlimited.”

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/08/either-neither.html

Lesson 238 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals

A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles and infinitives.
A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Eating is fun.
A participle is used as an adjective and ends in various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.
Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.
1. Blaming others is not being honest with oneself.
2. We do not plan to change the rules.
3. Forgetting his promise, Jeff returned home late.
4. My dog is too old to learn new tricks.
5. One way to improve is regular practice.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. blaming others is a gerund phrase used as the subject
2. to change the rules is a noun infinitive phrase used as the direct object
3. forgetting his promise is a participial phrase modifying the subject Jeff
4. to learn new tricks is an adverb infinitive phrase modifying the predicate adjective old
5. to improve is an adjective infinitive modifying the subject way

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-238-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html

Lesson 237 – Parts of the Sentence – Verbals

A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles and infinitives.
A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Eating is fun.
A participle is used as an adjective and ends in various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.
Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.
1. Signs hung too high can’t be read.
2. You know my weakness, eating late at night.
3. Your weeping and wailing will not change a thing.
4. To decorate for the dance will cost too much.
5. Do you have a book to read?
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. hung too high is a participial phrase modifying the subject signs
2. eating late at night is a gerund phrase used as an appositive
3. your weeping/wailing are gerunds used as subjects
4. to decorate for the dance is a noun infinitive phrase used as the subject
5. to read is an adverb infinitive modifying the verb do have

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/08/lesson-237-parts-of-sentence-verbals.html