Lesson 286 – Parts of the Sentence – Sentence Variety

Having learned about phrases and clauses, let’s now use the following phrases and clauses to give variety to our writing: participial phrases, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, compound sentences, or verbs.
First identify which of the above ways is used in the sentence, and then rewrite it using the three other ways identifying each of the methods used.
Example: Having finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = participial phrase
You must rewrite it using an adverb clause, adjective clause, and either a compound sentence or a simple sentence with compound verbs.
I finished my lessons, sat back, and gloried in my effort. = compound verbs
After I had finished my lessons, I sat back and gloried in my effort. = adverb clause
I who had finished my lessons sat back and gloried in my effort. = adjective clause
Instructions: Identify the written sentence and rewrite it the other three ways.
1. Watching the sunset above the mountain, John noticed the colors blending softly into one another.
2. The excited horse pawed the ground rapidly while it chewed on its bit and neighed continually.
3. The pilot climbed into his jet plane, adjusted his helmet, and attached his oxygen pack.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
(My rewrites are only one way that can be used. Other ways may be possible.)
1. participial phrase
John watched the sunset above the mountain, and he noticed the colors blending softly into one another. = compound sentence
While he watched the sunset above the mountain, John noticed the colors blending softly into one another. = adverb clause
John who was watching the sunset above the mountain noticed the colors blending softly into one another. = adjective clause
2. adverb clause
The excited horse which pawed the ground rapidly chewed on its bit and neighed continually. = adjective clause
Pawing the ground rapidly, the excited horse chewed on its bit and neighed continually. = participial phrase
The excited horse pawed the ground rapidly, chewed its bit, and neighed continually = compound verbs
3. compound verbs
Climbing into his jet plane, the pilot adjusted his helmet and attached his oxygen pack. = participial phrase
After he climbed into his jet plane, the pilot adjusted his helmet and attached his oxygen pack. = adverb clause
The pilot who climbed into his jet plane adjusted his helmet and attached his oxygen pack. = adjective clause

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from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-286-parts-of-sentence-sentence.html

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Biggity: too big for one’s britches

Q: An example in your piece about “ungrateful” and “uppity” uses “bigity,” as in “too big for one’s britches.” Did it originate among African Americans? I’ve heard it only from black folks in in the South.

A: The word “biggity” may indeed have originated in the 19th century among African Americans in the South, though a somewhat similar dialectal term, “bigotty,” showed up a bit earlier in England.

The Dictionary of American Regional English defines “biggity” (also spelled “bigity,” “biggaty,’” “biggedy,” etc.) as “exhibiting a sense of superiority or self-importance; arrogant, insolent, uppity.”

The earliest DARE example for “biggity” is from Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings (1881), by Joel Chandler Harris: “Dey er mighty biggity, dem house niggers is, but I notices dat dey don’t let nuthin’ pass.”

Many African Americans have criticized the portrayal of Uncle Remus, the narrator, as demeaning, patronizing, or racist. But others have said the characterization, with its Gullah dialect, is accurate.

In the foreword of a 1987 retelling of the Brer Rabbit stories, for example, the black folklorist Julius Lester writes:

“There are no inaccuracies in Harris’s characterization of Uncle Remus. Even the most cursory reading of the slave narratives collected by the Federal Writer’s Project of the 1930s reveals that there were many slaves who fit the Uncle Remus mold.”

DARE has citations for “biggity” used by whites as well as blacks, in the American South and Midwest, from the late 19th to the early 21st century.

The states include Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and a Northeast outlier, New Jersey.

The latest example is a 2015 Louisiana entry from the dictionary’s Internet files: “I thought that everyone in a highschool band would be biggity and cocky towards freshman. It wasn’t the case though.”

DARE notes that the English Dialect Dictionary has an entry for “bigotty,” meaning “bumptious, overbearing, self-willed,” and suggests that both “biggity” and “bigotty” may have been derived from the noun “bigot.”

In support of this notion, DARE editors point readers to a 1902 citation from Dialect Notes, a journal of the American Dialect Society: “Bigoted or bigoty … Conceited; proud; haughty.”

The earliest citation for “bigotty” in the English Dialect Dictionary is from an 1873 issue of the journal Notes and Queries: “Maayn beg·utee luyk, id-n ur [very bumptious (like), is he not?].” The EDD adds: “Nothing suggestive of religious intolerance is implied.”

The idea that “biggity” originated among African Americans is supported by an example we’ve found in “Negro English,” an article by the American linguist James A. Harrison in the January 1884 issue of Anglia, a German quarterly devoted to English linguistics.

The article, written in English, has a glossary entitled “Specimen Negroisms” that includes this example: “To talk biggity = to talk big, to order.”

Harrison’s work “is believed to be the first linguistic study of ‘Negro English,’ ” according to the Oxford Handbook of African American Language. However, modern scholars have challenged some of Harrison’s ideas, such as his view that “Negro English” would eventually fade away.

In Figures in Black (1987), for example, Henry Louis Gates Jr. notes Harrison’s prediction that African American Vernacular English (the term linguists now use), would become, as Gates says, “a mere relic of the slave past.”

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/10/biggity.html

Quiz for Lessons 281 – 285 – Parts of the Sentence – Clauses Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verb (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
If the sentence has a dependent clause, tell whether it is a noun clause, adverb clause, or adjective clause. Tell which word the adverb and adjective clause modify. Tell how the noun clause is used.
1. We offered whoever caused the accident a chance to confess.
2. The man whose leg was amputated was glad to be alive.
3. The judge is the person to whom you should talk.
4. When the mayor explained his plan, the citizens were pleased.
5. It is unfortunate that you do not agree.
6. The news that thousands had been killed was correct.
7. This house is where your grandmother lived.
8. Why you don’t like him is hard to understand.
9. If you are unable to find it, call me at home.
10. The manager said that everyone would get a raise.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. offered = verb, we = subject, chance = direct object, a = adjective modifying chance, to confess = adjective infinitive used as object complement; (whoever caused the accident) = noun clause used as an indirect object, caused = verb, whoever = noun clause introductory word used as the subject, accident = direct object, the = adjective modifying accident
2. was = verb, man = subject, the = adjective modifying man, glad = predicate adjective modifying man, to be = adverb infinitive modifying glad, alive = predicate adjective to the infinitive to be; (whose leg was amputated) = adjective clause modifying man, was amputated = verb, leg = subject, whose = adjective modifying leg
3. is = verb, judge = subject, person = predicate nominative, the = adjective modifying judge, the = adjective modifying person; to whom you should talk = adjective prepositional phrase modifying person, (whom you should talk) = noun clause used as the object of the preposition, should talk = verb, you = subject, whom = noun clause introductory word used as the direct object
4. were pleased = verb, citizens = subject, the = adjective modifying citizens; (when the mayor explained his plan) = adverb clause modifying were pleased, explained = verb, mayor = subject, plan = direct object, the = adjective modifying mayor, his = adjective modifying plan, when = subordinate conjunction introducing the adverb clause
5. is = verb, it = subject, unfortunate = predicate adjective modifying it; (that you do not agree) = adverb clause modifying unfortunate, do agree = verb, you = subject, not = adverb modifying do agree, that = subordinate conjunction introducing the adverb clause
6. was = verb, news = subject, correct = predicate adjective modifying news, the = adjective modifying news; (that thousands had been killed) = noun clause used as an appositive, had been killed = verb, thousands = subject, that = noun introductory word that does not fit grammatically with the sentence
7. is = verb, house = subject, this = adjective modifying house; (where your grandmother lived) = noun clause used as a predicate nominative, lived = verb, grandmother = subject, your = adjective modifying grandmother, where = noun clause introductory word used as an adverb modifying lived
8. is = verb; (why you don’t like him) = noun clause used as the subject, do like = verb, you = subject, him = direct object, n’t = adverb modifying do like, why = noun clause introductory word used as an adverb modifying do like; hard = predicate adjective modifying the noun clause, to understand = adverb infinitive modifying hard
9. call = verb, (you understood) = subject, me = direct object, at home = adverb prepositional phrase modifying call, at = preposition, home = object of the preposition; (if you are unable to find it) = adverb clause modifying call, are = verb, you = subject, unable = predicate adjective modifying you, to find = adverb infinitive modifying unable, it = direct object to the infinitive, if = subordinate conjunction introducing the adverb clause
10. said = verb, manager = subject, the = adjective modifying manager; (that everyone would get a raise) = noun clause used as the direct object, would get = verb, everyone = subject, raise = direct object, a = adjective modifying raise, that = noun clause introductory word that does not fit grammatically with the sentence

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/quiz-for-lessons-281-285-parts-of.html

Is it all relative … or academic?

Q: What is the difference between “it’s all relative” and “it’s all academic”? It seem to me that there’s something hypothetical about both of them.

A: The two usages, which showed up in the early 1800s, have a sense of uncertainty about them. “Relative” here means indefinite or indeterminate, while “academic” means impractical, theoretical, or inconsequential.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines “to be relative” as “to be evaluated differently depending on a person’s perspective; to be incapable of definitive or absolute evaluation. Frequently in it’s all relative.”

In other words, it’s all in the eye of the beholder, a usage that showed up in the early 1600s.

The earliest example for “it’s all relative” in the OED is from an 1804 case report by Christopher Robinson, a judge on the High Court of Admiralty:

“It may be difficult to lay down the precise bounds, where ordinary commerce ends, and extraordinary speculation begins. It is all relative.”

The dictionary defines “academic” in the sense you’re asking about as “not leading to a decision; unpractical; strictly theoretical or formal. Now also in weakened sense: of no consequence, irrelevant.”

The dictionary’s first example is from an 1812 issue of the Monthly Review, a British literary journal:

“His erudition must be worked into the edifice, not exhibited in lumpish disconnection. He must preserve the epic form, without sliding into academic discussion.”

The OED doesn’t have a citation for “it’s all academic.” But examples aren’t hard to find.

The earliest example we’ve found is from the February 1892 issue of Books, a publication of the Denver (CO) Public Library: “It is all academic to the last degree. It is perhaps the airiest of suspicions.”

In a recent example, Richard Posner, who had just retired as a federal judge in Chicago, said in a Sept. 14, 2017, interview that he was ordinarily polite in court but found it irritating when lawyers were unprepared or talkative or went off the point:

“So I do get annoyed; I’m criticized for that. I should control myself, but of course now, it’s all academic. I’m not a judge. Too late to correct me.”

As for the etymology, “academic” is ultimately derived from the classical Latin acadēmicus, describing the ancient Academy of Athens or its philosophy, while “relative” ultimately comes from the classical Latin relātus, past participle of referre (to refer).

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from Grammarphobia https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2017/10/relative-academic.html

Lesson 285 – Parts of the Sentence – Clauses Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verb (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
If the sentence has a dependent clause, tell whether it is a noun clause, adverb clause, or adjective clause. Tell which word the adverb and adjective clause modify. Tell how the noun clause is used.
1. Now I understand why you didn’t tell me.
2. Whenever you do well, you will be rewarded.
3. The instrument that he plays is not the French horn.
4. Sam explained how you could save money daily.
5. The man whom I met at the store knew my father.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. understand = verb, I = subject, now = adverb modifying understand; (why you didn’t tell me) = noun clause used as the direct object, did tell = verb, you = subject, me = direct object, n’t = adverb modifying did tell, why = noun clause introductory word used as an adverb modifying did  tell
2. will be rewarded = verb, you = subject; (whenever you do well) = adverb clause modifying will be rewarded, do = verb, you = subject, well = adverb modifying do, whenever = subordinate conjunction introducing the adverb clause
3. is = verb, instrument = subject, the = adjective modifying instrument, horn = predicate nominative, the/French = adjectives modifying horn; (that he plays) = adjective clause modifying instrument, plays = verb, he = subject, that = adjective clause introductory word used as a direct object
4. explained = verb, Sam = subject; (how you could save money daily) = noun clause used as the direct object, could save = verb, you = subject, money = direct object, how/daily = adverbs modifying could save
5. knew = verb, man = subject, father = direct object, my = adjective modifying father, the = adjective modifying man; (whom I met at the store) = adjective clause modifying man, met = verb, I = subject, whom = adjective clause introductory word used as the direct object to met, at the store = adverb prepositional phrase modifying met, at = preposition, store = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying store

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in eBook and Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-285-parts-of-sentence-clauses.html

Lesson 284 – Parts of the Sentence – Clauses Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verb (v), subjects (subj), predicate nominatives (pn), direct objects (do), appositives (app), nouns of address (na), adjectives (adj), predicate adjectives (pa), adverbs (adv), prepositions (prep), objects of the preposition (op), prepositional phrases (p ph), indirect objects (io), and objective complements (oc) in the following sentences.
If the word is verbal, tell whether it is a gerund, participle, noun infinitive, adjective infinitive, or adverb infinitive. Tell which word the adjective, adverb, prepositional phrase, verbal, orverbal phrase modify.
If the sentence has a dependent clause, tell whether it is a noun clause, adverb clause, or adjective clause. Tell which word the adverb and adjective clause modify. Tell how the noun clause is used.
1. Joe thinks he can win at the slots.
2. That one should always do his best is certain to bring success.
3. The fact was that I was not in town.
4. The girl ran more quickly to her mother than her brother.
5. Although a skilled person will be better prepared, he may not find work.
–For answers scroll down.

Answers:
1. thinks = verb, Joe = subject; (he can win at the slots) = noun clause used as the direct object with an understood introductory word that, can win = verb, he = subject, at the slots = adverb prepositional phrase modifying can win, at = preposition, slots = object of the preposition, the = adjective modifying slots
2. is = verb, (that one should always do his best) = noun clause used as the subject, should do = verb, one = subject, best = direct object, his = adjective modifying best, always = adverb modifying should do, that = noun clause introductory word that does not fit grammatically with the sentence; certain = predicate adjective modifying (that one should always do his best) the subject, to bring = adverb infinitive modifying certain, success = direct object to the infinitive to bring
3. was = verb, fact = subject, the = adjective modifying fact; (that I was not in town) = noun clause used as the predicate nominative, was = verb, I = subject, not = adverb modifying was, in town = adverb prepositional phrase modifying was, in = preposition, town = object of the preposition, that = noun clause introductory word that does not fit grammatically with the  sentence
4. ran = verb, girl = subject, the = adjective modifying girl, quickly = adverb modifying ran, more = adverb modifying quickly, to her mother = adverb prepositional phrase modifying ran, to = preposition, mother = object of the preposition, her = adjective modifying mother; (than her brother [ran quickly to his mother] understood part of the clause) = adverb elliptical clause modifying more, ran = understood verb, brother = subject, her = adjective modifying brother, quickly = understood adverb modifying understood ran, to his mother = understood prepositional phrase modifying ran, to = understood preposition, mother = understood object of the preposition, his = understood adjective modifying mother, than = subordinate conjunction introducing the adverb clause
5. may find = verb, he = subject, work = direct object, not = adverb modifying may find; (although a skilled person will be better prepared) = adverb clause modifying may find, will be = verb, person = subject, a = adjective modifying person, skilled = participle modifying person, prepared = participle modifying person used as the predicate adjective, better = adverb modifying prepared, although = subordinate conjunction introducing the adverb clause

For your convenience, all of our lessons are available on our website in our lesson archive at http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html. Our lessons are also available to purchase in an eBook and a Workbook format.
from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog http://dailygrammarlessons.blogspot.com/2017/10/lesson-284-parts-of-sentence-clauses.html

Seedy endings

Q: I’m often flummoxed when I try to spell words with endings that sound like “seed.” Is there a way to keep these endings straight?

A: Words that end with a “seed” sound are notoriously hard to spell, as Pat notes in her grammar and usage book Woe Is I.

“It helps to keep in mind that all but four end with cede,” she writes. “Three end with ceed, and only one ends with sede.

The cede-less variety consists of “exceed,” “proceed,” “succeed,” and “supersede.”

When in doubt, look it up. But if you don’t have a dictionary handy and you have to guess, the odds are good that the ending is “-cede.”

The “-cede” ending is ultimately derived from cēdere, classical Latin for to go away or give ground, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.

So etymologically, “antecede” means to go before, “intercede” to go between, and “recede” to go back, while “cede” and “concede” both mean to give ground or yield.

The “-ceed” ending is similarly derived from cēdere, the OED says, so “exceed” has the etymological sense of to go out, “proceed” to go forward, and “succeed” to go near.

Although the “-sede” ending in “supersede” may have been influenced by cēdere, according to Oxford, it ultimately comes from supersedēre, classical Latin for to sit on top of or abstain.

We published a post a couple of years ago about the difference between “accede” and “concede.” (“Concede” has an element of defeat, while “accede” implies a more ready acceptance.)

In the earlier item, we cite the OED as saying “cede” originally meant “to give way, give place, yield to”—as in “a servant cedes to his master.”

But that sense is now obsolete, the dictionary says, and “cede” now means “to give up, grant; to yield, surrender: esp. to give up a portion of territory.”

The earliest OED citation for the modern sense is from a 1754 travel book by Alexander Drummond:

“That honour was entirely ceded to the Parthian royal race.” (The Parthian Empire, which existed from 247 BC to 224 AD, ruled parts of ancient Iran and Iraq.)

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